Timeline: The Black Press and the Integration of Baseball

Brian Carroll
for JoMC 112


Trivial Pursuit :
Who is the only player to have ever hit the ball OUT of Yankee Stadium?
Who came in 2d to Jesse Owens in the 200m at the 1936 Berlin Olympics?
When did Jackie Robinson break the color barrier?

courier coverage


Cincinnati Red Stockings the first salaried team; first professional team

1871: First professional baseball league formed, National Association of Professional Base Ball Players

1876: First major league formed, the National League

Moses Fleetwood Walker becomes first black ballplayer in "major leagues," joining American Association

Argyle Hotel, N.Y., Athletics of Babylon, first professional all-black team

1887: First attempt at a Negro league (Walter Brown, Cleveland Gazette)

1889: Walker becomes the last black in professional baseball, Toledo Blue Stockings

1905: Chicago Defender

1910: Pittsburgh Courier

Roaring 1920s:
Negro National League
Rube Foster

Numbers games

rube foster






wendell smith

Wendell Smith in the hotel lobby

Campaign begins







1940s: WWII, Double V campaign, tryouts, F2F meetings, columns
     April 1945 -- tryouts in Boston (could've been first)
     October 1945 -- signed (audio)
     April 1946 -- Montreal (irony of Canada)
     April 1947 -- Brooklyn ("This is IT!")

death threats

branch and jackie
happy chandler
bill veeck
Branch Rickey
Happy Chandler
Bill Veeck
Larry Doby








1950s: Integration (Boston last in 1959)

1960s: Spring training and minor league baseball

1981: Foster inducted into HOF foster_HOF










2002: Milwaukee hires ML baseball's first black team president (still no owners)

Online Resources
Afro-American: From the Baltimore Afro-American, this section is devoted to Jackie Robinson
BlackBaseball.com: Site from TK Publishing on the Negro leagues
Negro League Baseball: Online publication devoted to the Negro leagues
The Sporting News: The venerable sports pub's archive section dedicated to Jackie Robinson
Library of Congress: Also an archive section dedicated to Jackie Robinson; includes a more robust timeline
Negro League Players Assn.: History section of the NLPA

jackie's slide

2002 CarrollinaWorks
Last modified: October 2002
Send comments and questions to bc@unc.edu

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